Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) Project, India

TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN

Government of India

 

The concept of sanitation was earlier limited to disposal of human excreta by cess pools, open ditches, pit latrines, bucket system etc.  Today it connotes a comprehensive concept, which includes liquid and solid waste disposal, food hygiene, personal, domestic as well as environmental hygiene.  Proper sanitation is important not only from the general health point of view but it has a vital role to play in our individual and social life too.  Sanitation is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index.  Good sanitary practices prevent contamination of water and soil and thereby prevent diseases.  The concept of sanitation was, therefore, expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. 

  

Keeping in view the above facts,"Total Sanitation Campaign  (TSC)" emphasizes more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development  activities to increase awareness among the rural people and   generation of demand  for sanitary facilities.  This will also enhance people's capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms  as per their economic condition.  The Programme is being implemented  with focus on community-led and people centred initiatives.  Children play an effective role in absorbing and popularising new ideas and concepts.  This Programme, therefore, intends to tap their potential as the most persuasive advocates of  good sanitation practices in their own house-holds and in schools. The aim is also to provide separate urinals/toilets for boys and girls in all the schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas in the country.

 

OBJECTIVES

 

5.     The main objectives of the TSC are as under:

 

§         Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural  areas.

 

§         Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.

 

§         Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.

 

§         Cover schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. 

 

§         Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation.

 

§         Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources and food.


§         Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas.

STRATEGY

 

The strategy is to make the Programme 'community led' and 'people centered'.  A "demand driven approach" is to be adopted with increased emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs.  Subsidy for individual household latrine units has been replaced by incentive to the poorest of the poor households. Rural School Sanitation is a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Technology improvisations to meet the customer preferences and location specific intensive IEC Campaign involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. are also important components of the Strategy. The strategy addresses all sections of rural population to bring about the relevant behavioural changes for improved sanitation and hygiene practices and meet their sanitary hardware requirements in an affordable and accessible manner by offering a wide range of technological choices.

 

 

IMPLEMENTATION

 

TSC is   implemented in phases with start-up activities.  Funds are made available for preliminary IEC work.  The physical implementation gets  oriented towards satisfying the felt-needs, wherein individual households choose from a  menu of options for their household latrines. The built-in flexibility in the menu of options gives the poor and the disadvantaged families  opportunity for subsequent upgradation depending upon their requirements and financial position.  In the "campaign approach", while a synergistic interaction between the Government agencies and other stakeholders,  intensive IEC and advocacy, with participation of NGOs/Panchayati Raj Institutions/resource organizations, take place to bring about the desired behavioural changes for relevant sanitation practices, provision of  alternate delivery system, proper technical specifications, designs and quality of installations are  also provided  to effectively fulfill the generated demand for sanitary hardware.

  

The TSC is being implemented  with a district as unit. The States/UTs are expected to draw up a TSC Project for the selected districts to claim GOI assistance with commitment of their support. The number of TSC projects in a state are allocated  based on the demand raised by the States as well as their performance in implementation of the existing projects. Selection of the districts is done by the respective State/UT Governments. The number of project districts will be progressively increased to cover the entire rural area of the country. The TSC Project cycle in the Project Districts is expected to take about 4 years or less for implementation.

 

COMPONENTS

 

The Programme components and activities for TSC implementation are as follows:

 

 (a)  Start-Up Activities:

 

The start-up activities include   conducting of preliminary survey to assess the status of sanitation and hygiene practices, people's attitude and demand for improved sanitation, etc.  with the aim to prepare the District TSC project proposals for seeking Government of India assistance. The start-up activities will also include conducting a Baseline Survey (BLS), preparation of Project Implementation Plan (PIP), initial orientation and training of key programme managers at the district level.  The cost of   Start-up activities will be met fully by the Government of India assistance and, should not exceed 5 percent of the total project.

 

(b)   IEC Activities:

 

Information, Education and Communication(IEC) are important components of the Programme.  These  intend to create demand for sanitary facilities in the rural areas for households, schools, Anganwadis, Balwadies and Community Sanitary Complexes.  The activities carried out under this component should be area specific and should also  involve all sections of the rural population, in a manner, where willingness of the people to construct latrines is generated.   The motivator can be given suitable incentive from the funds earmarked for IEC.  The incentive will be performance based i.e. in terms of motivating the number of households  and schools/ Anganwadis to construct latrines and soakage pits and also use the same subsequently.  The IEC should also focus  on health and hygiene practices and environmental sanitation aspects.  Under IEC, wall painting on a community building or hoardings should display the details of activities undertaken in that Panchayat.  Further, audio/ video clippings in AIR, Doordarshan and cable TVs may be screened for demand generation.  IEC funding will be in the ratio of 80:20 between GOI and the State Governments and the total IEC cost should not be less than 15 per cent of the project. Each project district should prepare a detailed IEC action plan with defined strategies to reach all sections of the community. The aim of such a communication plan is to motivate  rural people to adopt hygiene behaviour as a way of life and thereby develop and maintain all facilities created under the programme.

 

Funds available under IEC may be used for imparting hygiene education to the people as well as children in   schools.

 

 

 (c)  Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centres:

 

The Rural Sanitary Mart is an outlet dealing with the materials required for the construction of not only sanitary latrines but also other sanitary facilities required for individuals, families and the environment in the rural areas.  RSM should necessarily have those items, which are required as a part of the sanitation package.  It is a commercial  venture with a social objective.  The main aim of having a RSM is to provide materials, services and guidance needed for constructing different types of latrines and other sanitary facilities, which are technologically and financially suitable to the area. Production Centres are the means to improve production of cost effective affordable sanitary materials.  The Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts could be opened and operated by NGOs/ SHGs/ women Organizations/Panchayats.   For this purpose, less than 5 percent (subject to a maximum of Rs. 35.00 lakh) of the total  Government outlay has been earmarked.  Funding for this component will be in the ratio of 80:20 between the GOI and the State Government.  Further, under the TSC project, maximum  amount of Rs.3.5 lakh per Rural Sanitary Mart/ Production Centre can be provided.  The fund may be provided to the NGOs/ Panchayats/ other agencies for setting up of RSMs/PCs. The fund can be provided for construction of shed, training of masons and also as a revolving fund. After RSM/ PC attains a level of sustainability, the revolving fund should be refunded to the District Implementing Agency. The District Implementing agency should identify key training institutions/ Resource persons to train the Mart/ Production Centre Managers. They should also have a Memorandum of Understanding with the RSMs/PCs and, a system of joint monitoring evolved to ensure that the RSMs & PCs are successful as an enterprise and, function in accordance with the objectives of the Programme.

 

(d)   Construction of Individual Household Latrines:   

 

A duly completed household sanitary latrine shall comprise of a Basic Low Cost Unit  (without the super structure). All existing dry latrines in rural areas should be converted to pour flush latrines. The programme is aimed to cover all the rural families.  Incentive as provided under the scheme may be  extended to  Below Poverty Line families, if the same is considered necessary for full involvement of the community.  The construction of household toilets should be undertaken by the BPL household itself  and on completion and use of the toilet by the BPL household, the cash incentive can be given to the BPL household in recognition of its achievement.    The financing pattern including the incentive  for BPL household for construction of Individual house hold latrines  is as follows:-

 

Basic Low Cost Unit Cost (Rs.)

 

Contribution

 

GOI

State

House hold

 

BPL

APL

BPL

APL

BPL

APL

Upto Rs. 625/- (single pit)

60%

Nil

20%

Nil

20%

100%

Between Rs. 625/- and Rs. 1000/-

30%

Nil

30%

Nil

40%

100%

Above Rs.1000/-

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

100%

100%

 

            The incentive given by the Central Government will continue to be admissible with reference to the cost of the basic low cost unit as given in the above Table and in no case will the overall quantum of Central incentive exceed the admissible amount.

      It is assumed that A.P.L families, through motivation, will take up construction of the house hold latrines on their own. The IEC activities, will, however, cover all the families in the district, without exceptions.

      Construction of dry latrines is not permitted in the rural areas. The existing dry latrines, if any, should be converted to pour flush latrines and the unit cost and sharing pattern shall be identical to that of construction of individual house hold latrines.

 

(e)   Community Sanitary Complex:          

 

Community Sanitary Complex  is an important component of the TSC .These Complexes can be set up in a place in the village acceptable to women/men/ landless families  and accessible to them.  The maintenance of such complexes is very essential for which Gram Panchayat should own the ultimate responsibility or make alternative arrangements at the village level.  Maximum unit cost prescribed for a community complex is upto Rs 2 lakhs. However, it will be approved by the National Scheme Sanctioning Committee based on the detailed design and estimates. Sharing pattern amongst Central Government, State Government and the community is in the ratio  of 60:20:20. The community contribution, however, can be  made by the Panchayat. There will not be any upper ceiling for expenditure on this item.  However, total expenditure proposed on Community Sanitary Complex and Individual Household Toilets should be within the ceiling of 60 percent of the total Government outlay. Ordinarily such complexes should be constructed only when there is lack of space in the village for construction of household toilets and the community owns up the responsibility of their operation and maintenance. The ultimate aim is to ensure construction of maximum IHHLs and construction of community complexes will be restricted to only when IHHLs cannot be constructed, for whatever reason, and also teach the community  of "Hygiene practices". Such complexes can also be made at public places, markets, etc. where large scale congregation of people takes place.

 

(f)   School Sanitation & Hygiene Education:           

 

Every TSC Project.  Toilets in all types of Government Schools i.e. Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary and Anganwadis should be constructed.  Emphasis should be given on toilets for Girls in Schools.  The Central assistance per unit will be restricted to Rs.12,000/- for a unit cost of Rs.20,000/-  Separate toilets for girls and boys should be provided which are treated as two separate units and each unit is entitled to Central assistance upto Rs.12,000/-.  Funding for School Sanitation in a TSC Project is provided by the Central Government, State Government and Parent Teachers in the ratio of 60:30:10.  Gram Panchayat can also contribute the 10% share of Parent-Teachers.  State/UT Governments, Parent-Teachers Association and Panchayats are free to contribute from their own resources over and above the prescribed amount.   

 

Anganwadi Toilets :

 

In order to change the behaviour of the children from very early stage in life, it is essential that Anganwadis are used as a platform of behaviour change of the children as well as the mothers attending the Anganwadis. For this purpose each anganwadi should be provided with a baby friendly toilet. One toilet of unit cost upto Rs 5,000 can be constructed for each Anganwadi or Balwadi in the rural areas where incentive to be given by Government of India will be restricted to Rs 3,000. Additional expenses can be met by the State Government or the Panchayats. Since there are a large number of Anganwadis operating from private houses, following strategy may be adopted; (a) In all the Anganwadis, which are in Government buildings, baby friendly toilets should be constructed from out of the TSC funds to the extent laid down. (b) Those Anganwadis, which are in private buildings, the owner must be asked to construct the toilet as per design, and,  he/she  may be allowed to charge enhanced rent for the building to recover the cost of construction. Alternatively, the toilet may be constructed under the TSC  and, suitable deductions  made from the monthly rental paid to the owner to recover the cost over a period of time. (c) For new buildings, which are going to be hired for Anganwadis, buildings having baby friendly toilet facility only should be hired. More than 10% of  the total Government outlay can be utilized for School Sanitation and Anganwadi toilets .

 

(g)   Administrative Charges: 

 

The Administrative Charges include money spent on training, salary of temporary staff deployed during project period, support services, fuel charges, vehicle hire charges, stationery,  monitoring & evaluation of TSC project. monitoring & evaluation of TSC project.  However, in any case no additional posts shall be created nor separate vehicle purchased for the implementation of the TSC project. But in order to implement  the projects professionally, specialist consultants from the fields of Communication, Human Resource Development, School sanitation & Hygiene education and Monitoring may be hired for the project period. The fees of the consultants may be paid from the administrative charges. Administrative charges should not be used for buying vehicles, etc. A list of Do's and Don't's have been circulated vide OM No. W-11013/4/2000-CRSP dated 4th March 2003. It should be scrupulously followed. A copy of the same is kept at Annex-XI. Purchase of one computer with accessories is permissible per district.

  

SPECIAL PROVISIONS

 

For adequate coverage of the weaker sections and disadvantaged sections of the society, while selecting the districts blocks, villages and demand for sanitary latrines, preference should be given to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Out of the total incentive earmarked for the construction of household latrines, a minimum of 25% should be earmarked for the individual households from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

 

Further, a 3% reservation of incentive for individual toilets  for BPL households  shall be provided to the households with disabled persons. It may also be noted that while constructing toilets in schools, and other institutions, the construction should be made in such a way that the facilities can also be used by the disabled students and persons.

 

IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES       

 

Implementation of the Total Sanitation Campaign requires large scale social mobilization so its implementation at the District level should be done by the Zilla Panchayat. However, in case Zilla Panchayat is not in existence, District Water and Sanitation Mission should implement the project. However, both the TSC and Swajaldhara should be implemented by the same agency. The line departments will play the catalytic role in implementation.   

 

At the state level, State Government should set up an appropriate institutional arrangement to monitor the projects and facilitate the districts in implementing TSC. However, in states where Water supply & sanitation are handled by two different departments, separate institutional set up may also be made subject to the condition that officials handling water supply should be actively associated with  this institutional set up. Specialist consultants from the fields of Communication, Human Resource Development, Monitoring and School sanitation & hygiene education can be engaged at the state level. The expenses towards engaging these consultants  will be borne by the GOI and the States under the HRD fund available on 75:25 basis. Similarly common IEC and HRD activities for the whole state can be taken up at the state level for which limited fund may be provided to the states on a 75:25 sharing pattern. Separate bank account in any public sector bank would have to be opened exclusively for this programme.

 

PROJECT FUNDING

 

The Table below gives the percentage share of the allocation (i.e. the total approved TSC project cost) for different components of a TSC Project, the GOI/State share and the beneficiary contribution towards each components.  In the case of Union Territories, the State share under the TSC will be borne by the Govt. of India.

 

TSC Component-Wise earmarking and funding pattern

 

S.N.

Component

Amount earmarked as percent of the TSC project  outlay

Contribution percent

GOI

State

Household/

Community

 

a.

Start-up Activities (Preliminary Surveys, Publicity etc.)

Less than 5%

(subject to a ceiling of Rs. 20 lakh per district)

 

100

 

0

 

0

 

 

b.

IEC, Including Motivational Awareness and Educative Campaigns, Advocacy etc.

 

More than 15%

 

80

 

20

 

0

 

c.

Alternate Delivery Mechanism (PCs/RSMs)

More than 5%

(Subject to a maximum of Rs. 35 Lakh per district)

 

80

 

20

 

0

 

 

 

d.

 

 

(i) Individual Latrines for BPL/ disabled house holds

(ii) Community Sanitary Complexes

 

 

Less than 60%

 (subject to para 9 (d) of the Guidelines)

 

 

 

 

60

 

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

20

e.

Individual house hold latrines for APL

Nil

0

0

100

 

 

f.

School Sanitation

Including Anganwadis

(Hardware and Support Services)

 

More than 10%

 

60

 

30

 

10

 

g.

Administrative charges, including training, staff, support services, Monitoring & Evaluation etc.

 

Less than 5%

(subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 lakh per district)

 

80

 

20

 

0

 

In case the amount sought for / utilized  for under any component of the TSC is less than the earmarked percentage, the balance percent will be adjusted for construction of individual household latrines.  In no case the percent earmarked for components relating to start-up activities and administrative charges should exceed 5 percent of the project outlay.

 

RELEASE OF FUNDS

 

The Central assistance shall be released to the Implementing Agency in four instalments (30, 30, 30, 10). The first instalment will be released immediately after approval of the project proposal by the National Scheme Sanctioning Committee subject to receipt of details of the Implementing Agency at District level and name of the bank and A/c. No. etc.  The release of further instalments will be subject to the following conditions ;

 

I.     Release of State share : The State share must be released to the concerned project district at least in the same proportion as central share has been released within a fortnight of release of the central share.

 

II.     Household  / Community contribution :    For all the hardware activities executed, the corresponding household / community contribution, including APL house holds must be taken and reflected appropriately in the progress report.

 

III.    Expenditure and Utilization certificate : At least 60% of the total available funds under central share as well as State share,  including interest must have been properly utilized. There should be more than 60% utilization under central and State share separately. Separate utilization certificate for the central fund and the state fund should be submitted. The Utilization certificate should be furnished for each financial year since the year in which the project was sanctioned and fund released.  All  utilization certificates should be countersigned by Chairman- DWSM/ DRDA/ District collector or ZEO of Zilla Parishad as the case may be. (Annex-X)

 

IV.    Audit Certificate :  The accounts of the TSC project should be audited annually by a Chartered accountant. At the time of submission of the proposal for release of further installments, the audited statement of the preceding financial year should be submitted. It should be duly countersigned by the Chairman DWSM/DRDA/District Collector or CEO, Zilla Panchayat as the case may be. In case two instalments of funds are claimed in the same financial year, the accounts should be audited for the part of the financial year (upto the period for which utilization certificate is submitted). The audit report of the Chartered accountant should cover the issues as given in Annex-III & IV and should be submitted in the format annexed (Annex- V to IX).

 

V.    A Certificate regarding not purchasing any in-admissible items :      This Department vide its letter No. W-11013/4/2000-crsp dated 4th March 2003 has prescribed certain do's and don't's for the TSC project districts (Annex-XI). A certificate must be given by the Chairman of the DWSM/DRDA/District Collector or CEO, Zilla Patishad as the case may be, certifying that no condition in the aforementioned letter  has been violated.

 

VI.    The proposal for release of second or subsequent instalment should be sent by the District Implementing Agency through the concerned administrative Department in the State Government dealing with Rural Sanitation.

 

VII.   The last instalment will be released only if the expenditure is atleast 80% of the available funds (separately for centre and state)and on submission of the Utilization Certificate and AG Certificate/Chartered Accountant Certificate of previous year.

 

VIII.            Other conditions that may be prescribed from time to time.


INSPECTIONS

 

Monitoring through regular field inspections by officers from the State level and the district levels is essential for the effective implementation of the Programme. The inspection should be to check and ensure that construction work has been done in accordance with the norms, the community has been involved in construction,  the latrines are not polluting the water sources and also to check whether there has been correct selection of beneficiaries and proper use of latrines after construction. Such inspection should ensure that the sanitary latrines are not used for any other purpose. Inspection should be done to check whether TSC information of a Gram Panchayat has been displayed transparently in Gram Panchayat (by wall painting or special hoarding). Project authorities should constitute a team of experts in the district who should review the implementation in different blocks frequently. Such review should be held at least once a quarter. Similarly the State Government should conduct review of projects in each district once a quarter. In addition, Government of India will send its review missions to the states periodically to asses the quality of implementation.


 
 

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